Professor Calabrese began his presentation by explaining that the human brain is social and that it has evolved to allow for optimal collaboration between people. Its large number of densely interconnected and myelinated neurons allows humans to communicate in a complex way, have mental representations, memory systems, and emotional multi-perspectivity. Brain atrophy and demyelination can disrupt these functions and have strong implications on social integration. Cognitive impairment (CI) is present in 40–60% of people with MS and often manifests as poor memory, and low speed and flexibility.

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